- Analysis and assessment the current state-of-the-art of calculating natural and
biogenic emissions for the following sources and pollutants:
- Natural and semi-natural vegetation (NMVOC)
- Wind blown dust (PM)
- Volcanoes (SOx, NOx, PM)
- Biomass burning and forest fires (NOx, PM, CO, VOC)
- NO from soils (natural and agricultural) (NO)
- Lightning (NO)
- Primary biological aerosol particles (PM)
- Coastal zones, seas and lakes (DMS)
- Sea salt (PM)
- Wild animals (CH4, NH3)
- Anoxic soil processes (wetlands) (CH4)
- Geological seepages (CH4)
- Identification of gaps and development of pathways to improve existing methods;
collection or generation of improved input data.
- Development and application of new methods to calculate natural and biogenic
emission inventories for all relevant pollutants and source categories mentioned
- Natural and biogenic Emissions have been calculated for the year 2000, 2010 and 2050.
The emissions for the year 2010 have been approximated by emissions calculated for years 1997 and 2001.
Both years showed an average climatical behaviour in Europe. Emissions for the year 2050 have been approximated
by emissions calculated for the very dry and warm year 2003. The meteorology in the year 2003 was assumed
to have been influenced by climate change effects.
- Provision of algorithms, that can directly be integrated into atmospheric models to
enable them to calculate improved emissions using the same meteorological data
and land use data, that is also used in the atmospheric model.
- Assessment of uncertainties and sensitivity of models based on the new results
- Modelling of test cases to estimate atmospheric concentrations of the considered
pollutants under different scenarios on the European scale as well as on the local
scale, especially answering the questions:
- In which way will calculated concentrations and deposition of secondary
pollutants change, if new estimates of biogenic and natural emissions are
- Which share of total concentration/deposition is caused by natural and
- What is the effect of global warming on the air quality via changes in
emissions from natural and biogenic sources?
The assessment has been carried out for EU25 + Switzerland + Norway and as far as possible
Bulgaria, Romania and the area of the former Yugoslavia.