APPROACH IN BRIEF (for more details and calculation methods s. Publications)  
  1. Analysis and assessment the current state-of-the-art of calculating natural and biogenic emissions for the following sources and pollutants:

    • Natural and semi-natural vegetation (NMVOC)
    • Wind blown dust (PM)
    • Volcanoes (SOx, NOx, PM)
    • Biomass burning and forest fires (NOx, PM, CO, VOC)
    • NO from soils (natural and agricultural) (NO)
    • Lightning (NO)
    • Primary biological aerosol particles (PM)
    • Coastal zones, seas and lakes (DMS)
    • Sea salt (PM)
    • Wild animals (CH4, NH3)
    • Anoxic soil processes (wetlands) (CH4)
    • Geological seepages (CH4)

  2. Identification of gaps and development of pathways to improve existing methods; collection or generation of improved input data.

  3. Development and application of new methods to calculate natural and biogenic emission inventories for all relevant pollutants and source categories mentioned above.

  4. Natural and biogenic Emissions have been calculated for the year 2000, 2010 and 2050. The emissions for the year 2010 have been approximated by emissions calculated for years 1997 and 2001. Both years showed an average climatical behaviour in Europe. Emissions for the year 2050 have been approximated by emissions calculated for the very dry and warm year 2003. The meteorology in the year 2003 was assumed to have been influenced by climate change effects.

  5. Provision of algorithms, that can directly be integrated into atmospheric models to enable them to calculate improved emissions using the same meteorological data and land use data, that is also used in the atmospheric model.

  6. Assessment of uncertainties and sensitivity of models based on the new results

  7. Modelling of test cases to estimate atmospheric concentrations of the considered pollutants under different scenarios on the European scale as well as on the local scale, especially answering the questions:

    • In which way will calculated concentrations and deposition of secondary pollutants change, if new estimates of biogenic and natural emissions are used?
    • Which share of total concentration/deposition is caused by natural and biogenic emissions?
    • What is the effect of global warming on the air quality via changes in emissions from natural and biogenic sources?

The assessment has been carried out for EU25 + Switzerland + Norway and as far as possible Bulgaria, Romania and the area of the former Yugoslavia.